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Europe's lost forests : A pollen-based synthesis for the last 11,000 years

  • N. Roberts
  • R. M. Fyfe
  • J. Woodbridge
  • M. J. Gaillard
  • B. A.S. Davis
  • J. O. Kaplan
  • L. Marquer
  • F. Mazier
  • A. B. Nielsen
  • S. Sugita
  • A. K. Trondman
  • M. Leydet
Publishing year: 2018-12-01
Language: English
Publication/Series: Scientific Reports
Volume: 8
Issue: 1
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group

Abstract english

8000 years ago, prior to Neolithic agriculture, Europe was mostly a wooded continent. Since then, its forest cover has been progressively fragmented, so that today it covers less than half of Europe's land area, in many cases having been cleared to make way for fields and pasture-land. Establishing the origin of Europe's current, more open land-cover mosaic requires a long-term perspective, for which pollen analysis offers a key tool. In this study we utilise and compare three numerical approaches to transforming pollen data into past forest cover, drawing on >1000 14C-dated site records. All reconstructions highlight the different histories of the mixed temperate and the northern boreal forests, with the former declining progressively since ∼6000 years ago, linked to forest clearance for agriculture in later prehistory (especially in northwest Europe) and early historic times (e.g. in north central Europe). In contrast, extensive human impact on the needle-leaf forests of northern Europe only becomes detectable in the last two millennia and has left a larger area of forest in place. Forest loss has been a dominant feature of Europe's landscape ecology in the second half of the current interglacial, with consequences for carbon cycling, ecosystem functioning and biodiversity.


  • Physical Geography
  • Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use


  • PAGES’ LandCover6k Working Group
  • ISSN: 2045-2322
Anne Birgitte Nielsen
E-mail: anne_birgitte [dot] nielsen [at] geol [dot] lu [dot] se

Senior lecturer

Quaternary Sciences

+46 46 222 39 48


Sölvegatan 12, Lund


Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science
Lund University
Sölvegatan 12
S-223 62 Lund

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